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Aids Causes and Prevention In Urdu


HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Without treatment, HIV infection will usually result in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). New HIV therapies introduced in the mid 1990s have resulted in much less AIDS-related illness and death. However, HIV remains a life-long infection.

How HIV is spread

HIV infection occurs when particular body fluids (blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breastmilk) containing the virus come into contact with another person’s tissues beneath the skin (for example, though needle puncture or broken skin), or mucous membranes (lining of eyes, nose, mouth, anus, vagina and urethra). In Australia, most infections have resulted from:

  • unprotected sex (anal and vaginal intercourse)
  • sharing injecting equipment
  • receiving blood or blood products before the introduction of screening in 1985
  • mother-to-baby transmission during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding.

Routine social or community contact with an HIV infected person carries no risk of infection.

There is no evidence of spread of HIV through social contact in schools, at home or in the work place.

HIV has not been transmitted through:

  • air or water
  • swimming pools or toilets
  • sharing of plates, cups or cutlery
  • kissing, coughing, sneezing or spitting.

In addition, there is no evidence that HIV can be spread by mosquitoes or other biting insects.

Signs and symptoms

A few weeks after infection with HIV, the infected person may develop an illness (seroconversion illness) which is often mild, consisting of:

  • muscle aches
  • low-grade fever
  • headaches
  • sometimes a rash
  • swelling of the lymph glands may also occur.

This illness at the beginning of the infection is so similar to many other viral infections that the diagnosis of HIV infection may not be made at this time. This flu-like illness may last for a few weeks and then there is a return to seemingly normal health. This period of ‘normal’ health varies widely between persons. Some experience fairly rapid development of disease due to the HIV infection, whereas others may remain free of any symptoms for many years.

When symptoms do eventually develop, they may not be specific and can include:

  • chronic loss of appetite
  • diarrhea
  • weight loss
  • fever
  • lethargy
  • and fatigue.

HIV destroys certain cells within the immune system (CD4+ or helper T cells) from the time of infection onwards, causing more and more damage. Eventually the point is reached where the damage to the immune system is so great that the body can no longer stop some infections or cancers it normally fights successfully. Infections not usually seen in healthy persons, called opportunistic infections, and certain unusual tumours such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, may also occur. Women with HIV infection are at increased risk of developing cervical cancer and both men and women are at increased risk of anal cancer. HIV can cause infection within brain tissue, which can lead to nervous system disorders or dementia in some HIV infected persons.

HIV Prevention

Despite significant efforts, there is no effective vaccine against HIV. The only way to prevent infection by the virus is to avoid behaviors that put you at risk, such as sharing needles or having unprotected sex. In this context, unprotected sex means sex without a barrier such as a condom. Because condoms break, even they are not perfect protection. Many people infected with HIV don’t have any symptoms. There is no way to know with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected. Here are some prevention strategies:

  • Abstain from sex. This obviously has limited appeal, but it absolutely protects against HIV transmission by this route.
  • Have sex with a single partner who is uninfected. Mutual monogamy between uninfected partners eliminates the risk of sexual transmission of HIV.
  • Use a condom in other situations. Condoms offer some protection if used properly and consistently. Occasionally, they may break or leak. Only condoms made of latex should be used. Only water-based lubricants should be used with latex condoms.
  • Do not share needles or inject illicit drugs.
  • If you work in a health-care field, follow recommended guidelines for protecting yourself against needle sticks and exposure to contaminated fluids.
  • If you have engaged in risky behaviors, get tested to see if you have HIV.
  • The risk of HIV transmission from a pregnant woman to her baby is significantly reduced if the mother takes medications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery and her baby takes medications for the first six weeks of life. Even shorter courses of treatment are effective, though not as optimal. The key is to get tested for HIV as early as possible in pregnancy. In consultation with their physician, many women opt to avoid breastfeeding to minimize the risk of transmission after the baby is born.

Aids Causes and Prevention In Urdu

Aids Causes and Prevention In Urdu

Filed in: Health Care Tips In Urdu

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